“Predatory journals and conferences are belonging to a spectrum or typology of journal and conference practices; a broad set of dynamic predatory behaviours that range from genuinely fraudulent and deceitful practices – as described by the international consensus definition (Grudniewicz et al, 2019) – to questionable and unethical ones, with varying degrees of unacceptable to well-intentioned low-quality practices in the middle.”

definition by IAP Combatting Predatory Academic Journals and Conferences Report, 2022

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