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The New Physics Revolution

The new physics revolution concerns the physics of life, the physics that explains why life is self-organizing and self-evolving, and why it is intelligently designed and purposeful. It is about the life-organizing principle which generates bio-intelligence, unifies ontogeny and phylogeny, bridges the gap between ordinary physics and biology, and admits limiting transition to linear reversible quantum mechanics.[1- 5]   Thus the need for the new physics is indispensible, because ordinary or conventional physics, inanimate physics, does not explain life phenomenon for the following reasons:

1-      Ordinary physics studies physical systems as systems of energy which is conserved, quantized and degraded in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.  Although energy is a necessary condition for life, it is not sufficient to explain life, because a living system is also an information system, DNA is an information storage, processor and replicator. It follows neither energy nor information alone can play the role of the unifying concept that contains the dynamical essence of living systems.

2-      Pattee H. H. , argued “If living matter is exactly the same as nonliving matter with respect to description by physical laws, then this does not answer the obvious question of why living matter is so conspicuously different from nonliving matter.”[6] Paul Davies emphasized “If quantum mechanics is to play a non-trivial role in bio-systems, then some way to sustain quantum coherence at least for biochemically, if not biologically, significant time scales must be found. Without this crucial step, quantum biology is dead”[7].

Although it is evident that life is irreducible to ordinary physics, it is also evident that life, being a material system, is subject to the principle of causal closure according to which life as a material or physical effect must have a physical cause. So how can we resolve this contradiction? How can life be physical phenomenon and at the same time irreducible to ordinary physics?  Sure this could only happen at the expense of broadening the domain of ordinary physics theory in order to incorporate life phenomenon. To achieve this goal, i.e., broadening the ontological foundation of contemporary physical theory, necessitates revealing the physical properties and laws that distinguish life from non life.

To reveal the physical properties and laws which distinguish life from non life the following paradigm shift is needed:

First: Broadening the concept of information

It is important to distinguish between physical information and bio-information. Physical information, i.e., Shannon type of information, is a measure of static complexity in bits or bytes; such information is inactive the generation of which needs an external intelligent source. Being unable to define operationally what they call complex specified information, intelligent design advocates adopt the passive property of physical information and invite god of the gaps.[8,9] On the contrary bio-information is self generating, it does not need an external intelligent source, it is self- referential in accordance with the laws of quantum bio-information field, i.e., in accordance with the life-organizing principle.[1 -5]

Bio-information is a measure of developmental functional complexity and has the dimensions of energy and information since there is no function without energy. Bio-information increases before an organism is fully grown (adult), has a maximum at adulthood, decreases afterwards and becomes zero when the organism dies. So we have a curve (sometimes called vitality curve) which defines the organism bio-complexity at each time. The total area under the bio-information curve measures the organism (as a quantum bio-information field) capacity to generate bio-complexity, we call it bio-intelligence, i.e., bio-intelligence is the capacity to generate bio-complexity or functional structures. The increase of bio-information and in consequence bio-intelligence is subject to the maximum action principle which distinguishes life from non life. According to the maximum action principle the rate of change of action correlates to bio-information. Bio-intelligence has the dimensions of action, information and time, it is the fitness unit of natural selection, i.e., the fittest is the one having greatest bio-intelligence. Therefore bio-intelligence is evolution target criterion. Bio-intelligence, like energy, is conserved and quantized, unlike energy it is subject to the maximum action principle instead of the least action principle.

Second broadening the concept of field

Again we must distinguish between ordinary conservative physical fields which are subject to point attractors and impose upward causation, e.g., magnetic, electrostatic, gravitational, etc.,   and organisms as quantum bio-information fields (QBF) subject to periodic bio-information attractors which impose downward causation. A quantum bio-information field (QBF) is a cellular domain of biochemical interactions underpinned by electromagnetic field; it is a function over bio-information and time. The QBF generates self-sustained bio-information oscillations for successive generations which distinguish life from nonlife.[1-5]

The QBF is represented by a generalized Schrodinger type of system non-conservative, nonlinear and irreversible; it is periodic bio-information attractor (PBA), it is called the life-organizing principle. The phase of the PBA, by imposing downward causation, contains the dynamical essence of a bio-system because the rate of change of phase which is the rate of change of action is the driving force for bio-information (bio-complexity and gene expression). Moreover the phase is correlated to the system’s bio-intelligence.

Thus the QBF’s equations describe biotic development and evolution, for example cellular differentiation is a process through which transcription factors activate certain gene expression(s), and it follows based on the activation the PBA undertakes negative damping which maximizes the system’s bio-intelligence. Micro-evolution (beneficial adaptive mutation which overcomes certain stress) is a process through which a maximum action potential, which is phase difference, restructures a genome to regain its initial appropriate bio-intelligence stationary functional state. Moreover, natural genetic engineering (James Shapiro)[10] is a process through which the PBA undertakes negative damping; in consequence macro-evolution exhibits power law distribution of bio-intelligence in agreement with Bak-Paczuski’s self-organized criticality.[11]

 Therefore a new paradigm which supports the proposed “Extended Evolutionary Synthesis” is emerging according to which evolution is NGE symbiogenesis, hybridization, etc., and natural selection as mechanism and the maximum action principle as driving force which maximize bio-intelligence.

Finally, based on the life-organizing principle or quantum bio-information field theory, the origin of life is the origin of bio-information. Bio-information originates when oligonucleotides and oligopeptides undergo reciprocal autocatalysis [12,13] subject to the maximum action principle, i.e., arrangement of nucleotides along a path of maximum action and maximum bio-information. Such subjection is a necessary condition for generating syntactically meaningful genetic code. A genetic code is meaningful if it produces viable functional proteins.[1]

References:

[1] Elsheikh M. 2016 Evolution physical intelligent guiding principle:

http://link.springer.com/search?query=&search-within=Journal&facet-journal-id=40974&package=openaccessarticles

 

[2] Elsheikh M. 2014. Discovery of the Life-Organizing Principle – In Search of the Fundamental Laws of Life” published by iUniverse Publisher:

http://bookstore.iuniverse.com/Products/SKU-000693619/Discovery-of-the-LifeOrganizing-Principle.aspx

[3]  Elsheikh M. 2015. In Search of Quantum Information Biology:

http://researchpub.org/journal/asb/archives.html

[4] Elsheikh M. 2010. Towards a New Physical Theory of Biotic Evolution and Development.  Ecological Modelling (2010)221 pp. 1108-1118.

[5] Elsheikh M. 2016. Natural Genetic Engineering: A Quantum bio-information field approach. In press.

[6] Pattee H (1968) The physical basis of coding and reliability. In:

Waddington H (ed) Towards a theoretical biology. Edingburgh

University Press, Edingburgh

[7] Davies PCW (2004) Does quantum mechanics play a non-trivial role

in life? BioSystems 78(2004):69–79

[8] Dembski W (1998) The design inference. Cambridge University

Press, Cambridge

[9]Truman R (1999) The problem of information for the theory of

evolution: Has Dawkins really solved it? http://www.trueorigin.

org/dawkinfo.asp

[10] Shapiro J. 2005.  A 21st century view of evolution: genome system architecture,

repetitive DNA, and natural genetic engineering.Gene 345 91–100 www.sciencedirect.com

[11] Bak P, Paczuski M (1995) Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:6689–6696

[12] Charles W. Carter, Jr 2015. What RNA World? Why a Peptide/RNA Partnership Merits. Renewed Experimental Attention. Life 2015, 5, 294-320; doi:10.3390/life5010294

[13] Peter T.S. van der Gulik , Dave Speijer, 2015. How Amino Acids and Peptides Shaped the RNA World Life 2015, 5, 230-246; doi:10.3390/life5010230

 

                         

Elsheikh M.